Monday, May 18, 2009
Union Soldiers of Florida, Part Six
This is part of a continuing series on the part played by Union soldiers from Florida during the Civil War. To read the previous posts, please scroll down the page or check the archives section.
As the Union troops under Brigadier General Alexander Asboth approached Marianna on the morning of September 27, 1864, the 2nd Maine Cavalry was in the lead but the men of the 1st Florida U.S. Cavalry were close enough to the action to see and know what was happening.
The 2nd Maine broke through a Confederate line of battle about three miles northwest of Marianna at around midmorning and from there the Union troops engaged the retreating cavalry in a running skirmish back to the edge of Marianna. In a brief pause at the edge of town, the Union forces divided. Some of the troops, apparently almost all from the 1st Florida U.S., undertook a flanking move along a logging road that passed around the northern edge of town. The others, also including at least a company of men from the 1st Florida U.S. headed straight up the main road.
The initial attack on the town by Cutler's Battalion of the 2nd Maine Cavalry was driven back in confusion after running into stiff resistance by Colonel Alexander Montgomery and a couple of companies of Confederate cavalry. General Asboth spurred to the front and led a second charge of the main road, this one by Hutchinson's Battalion of the Second Maine, a company of the 1st Florida U.S. right behind.
The charging Federals ran into a line of wagons and other debris placed across the main road to slow a cavalry charge and as they were making their way around, through and over it, several companies of local home guards suddenly opened on them with a fierce volley of fire from shotguns, old muskets and any other weapon they could get their hands on. More than 30 men at the head of the column, including General Asboth, fell dead or wounded.
According to Wade Richardson of the 1st Florida U.S., the home guards made an attempt to capture the wounded general, but were driven back by some of his comrades with their sabers.
The flanking party, meanwhile, entered town from the north and took up positions at the Courthouse Square, blocking the main road as Montgomery and his retreating Confederate cavalry came thundering up the street in an effort to reach the Chipola River and make a second stand at the bridge there.
The two mounted forces engaged in hand to hand fighting around the courthouse. Montgomery was unhorsed and other men wounded or captured. At least one of the Federals was unhorsed and his saber taken away from him by a couple of men from Captain Alexander Godwin's Campbellton Cavalry, a local militia unit.
After the battle, local residents noted that Union soldiers from the community, obviously members of the 1st Florida U.S., intervened on their behalf several times and helped to protect buildings and property from looting. They also summoned doctors to assist some of the fallen Confederates. The regiment sustained only 1 man wounded at the Battle of Marianna.
To learn more about the battle, please visit http://www.battleofmarianna.net/.